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Aviation Training Facts for Elgin, IL

The problem of instructor pilots training, after World War II, was almost as critical as that of maintenance personnel training. Most of the assigned pilots had not been overseas returnees, and were, therefore, subject to overseas duty. The number of instructors on hand varied from one to five making planning student loads nearly impossible. To stabilize instructor manning, the helicopter school requested assignment of one class composed entirely of combat returnees, who could be retained as instructors. A class of 10 combat returnees began training 15 July 1946.

Aviation Facts - High-Speed Aerodynamics

Listed below are a range of conditions that are encountered by aircraft as their designed speed increases.• Subsonic conditions occur for Mach numbers less than one (100–350 mph). For the lowest subsonic conditions, compressibility can be ignored.• As the speed of the object approaches the speed of sound, the flight Mach number is nearly equal to one, M = 1 (350–760 mph), and the flow is said to be transonic. At some locations on the object, the local speed of air exceeds the speed of sound. Compressibility effects are most important in transonic flows and lead to the early belief in a sound barrier. Flight faster than sound was thought to be impossible. In fact, the sound barrier was only an increase in the drag near sonic conditions because of compressibility effects. Because of the high drag associated with compressibility effects, aircraft are not operated in cruise conditions near Mach 1.• Supersonic conditions occur for numbers greater than Mach 1, but less then Mach 3 (760–2,280mph). Compressibility effects of gas are important in the design of supersonic aircraft because of theshockwaves that are generated by the surface of the object. For high supersonic speeds, between Mach 3 and Mach 5 (2,280–3,600 mph), aerodynamic heating becomes a very important factor in aircraft design.• For speeds greater than Mach 5, the flow is said to be hypersonic. At these speeds, some of the energy of the object now goes into exciting the chemical bonds which hold together the nitrogen and oxygen molecules of the air. At hypersonic speeds, the chemistry of the air must be considered when determining forces on the object. When the space shuttle re-enters the atmosphere at high hypersonic speeds, close to Mach 25, the heated air becomes an ionized plasma of gas, and the spacecraft must be insulated ted from the extremely high temperatures.