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Historical Facts of Helicopters
In 1907, the Breguet Brothers built their first helicopter. Their cumbersome quad-rotor Gyroplane consisted of four long girders made of steel tubes and arranged in the form of a horizontal cross. A rotor consisting of four biplane blades was placed at each of the four corners of the cross, giving a total of 32 separate lifting surfaces. The pilot sat in the center of the cross next to a 40-hp engine. The machine is reported to have carried a pilot off the ground, albeit briefly.
Aerodynamics and the Laws of Physics
Air has no force or power, except pressure, unless it is in motion. When it is moving, however, its force becomes apparent. A moving object in motionless air has a force exerted on it as a result of its own motion. It makes no difference in the effect then, whether an object is moving with respect to the air or the air is moving with respect to the object. The flow of air around an object caused by the movement of either the air or the object, or both, is called the relative wind.